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technology topic paperAnswers 0Bids 62Other questions 10Tips 0

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MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management2. Conceptual SpecificationRecap  Week 1Team MeetingTechnology Module Topic 2:Concepts & their Specification (for assignment 1)Picturing a System  (thinking about assignment 2)Data Specification (thinking about assignment 2)MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Technology Module – Assignments & topics1. Architecture2. Specification3. Systems5. Design4. Organisation6. FuturesIndividual Assignment 1: Technology Topic ReportsubmitRead the assignment specifications on Wattle. Re-read them as you proceed.Stay on top of this work – the module is short, the work intellectually demanding submitTeam Assignment 2: Technology Case Study AnalysisEXAMdraftRead the Discussion Forum !MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Searching for literature GoogleANU Library access to e-books & journalsGoogle ScholarOxford English DictionarySearch terms:use of quotes ‘…’synonyms (try a thesaurus)wordnetbalance being too general with being too specificThe Library can help!   Start here: https:// anulib.anu.edu.au /research-learn/finding-resources Set up your research workbench:MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management The Literature Domain https://www.rri-tools.eu/-/science-is-not-what-you-think-how-it-has-changed-why-we-can-t-trust-it-how-it-can-be-fixedGrey literatureTextbook literatureReview papersResearch papersWikipedia(A conceptual framework – one of many possible conceptualisations)opinion pieces, blogsMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Week 1…The Structure of the Information World    (data, information, knowledge)religionsThe lawvocabulariesInformal Formal Organic DeliberativeinstitutionsculturesdesignsdatadiscussionsreportsWorld 2:Cognition World 1:Physical Objects and Events debatesblogstheories & modelspoliciesproceduresrulessocial conventionsontologiesStableEphemeralhypothesesUniversalPatternsParticulardataGeneralisedproposalsMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management World 3:Information World 1:Objects and Events World 2:Cognition policeman’s thoughtsmythoughtscarspeedroad zoneperceptionstatementscommunicationMotor Traffic ActreferenceGPSprocessingdataImportantConcepts:  satelliteGPShardwareWeek 1… The 3-Worlds Model.MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management InputOutputProcessWeek 1…  Input-Process-Output  Model.StorageCommunicationsMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Internet / web      dbmstpswifimodembluetoothbisimulationdssPhotoshopWeek 1…  Technical ArchitectureShows you (an actor) taking a photo on a mobile, using Bluetooth to transfer it to your computer, editing it in photoshopand uploaded to facebook via wifi to a modem and cable through the internet/web.There a tps hands it to a dbms which stores it in its database. Later, it is retrieved and sent to Cambridge Analytica which uses bi software, simulation and a dss to produce information for An political advisor (or advertiser) to use in persuading you to vote fora particular candidate. political advisor      Key:tps – transaction processing systemdbms – data base management systembi – business intelligence systemdss – decision support systemMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Technical IT Architecture(physical implementation)Processinput  Week 1…   Information Systems Architectural Layers storageHuman/OrganisationsystemKnow-how,algorithms Ontologies, Data, InformationConceptual Architecture(conceptualspecification)outputPhysical & organisational surroundingsThe worldMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management2. Conceptual SpecificationRecap  Week 1Team MeetingTechnology Module Topic 2:Concepts & their Specification (for assignment 1)Picturing a System  (thinking about assignment 2)Data Specification (thinking about assignment 2)MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Concepts There is a critical difference between a – a particular thing, and   – a concept of a ‘sort of thing’A concept is a class, a set, a category which  groups particular things that have attributes in commonForms of Concept definition:- strict, defined by its boundaries, members are in or out- fuzzy, defined by its core, members are more-or-less in or outMuch of our thinking (world 2) is – about concepts- relating concepts to each other- relating concepts to particular thingsWe think in conceptsWe talk and read concepts (world 3)MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management An ontology:  ‘Explicit representation of conceptualization’ (Guarino et al. 2009)Specifying our conceptualisation of a domain .. Used  to:develop common understanding of structures(e.g. the structure of information among people or systems)make assumptions explicit (to avoid and identify gaps in understanding)analyse and formalise different types of knowledge (e.g. domain knowledge and technical)uncover missing knowledge (to surface biases and weaknesses)enable machine ‘intelligence'(Trivago)A formal vocabulary & conceptual framework for a domain  (ie. a semantic network)A Domain:  A coherent structure of concepts, a field of knowledge, … MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Rough Preliminary Conceptual Framework MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Conceptual Structure – a taxonomyA Hierarchy of concepts  https:// en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Taxonomy https://www.earley.com/blog/taxonomy-vs-taxonomy-vs-taxonomyMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Conceptual FrameworksEvery statement we make draws on concepts Conceptual Structure – example: Building – a Cross-Section PlanMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management 1. Find descriptions of the concepts you are interested in (ie. the terms used to describe it)definitions – dictionaries, indexes and glossaries of textbooks, encyclopaedia,thesaurii, wikipedia, etcuses in practice – the literaturenote senses     … begin to narrow relevance by exclusion of out-of-scope sensesA Method for Conceptual Framework Creation 1b. Look for examples (instances)Exemplars & PrototypesCore boundary & non examples (conditions for determination)Difficult cases3. Identify surrounding conceptsHow are they related?2. Identify the Taxonomy around the concept type hierarchies – find parent(s), sibling and child concepts (see wordnet)1a. Identify attributes of the concepthow would you recognise an example of the concept in the wild? are attributes observable, measurable? (scalar, polar or fuzzy,…?)(Assignment 1)MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Rough Preliminary Conceptual Framework MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management  Conceptual Structure – example AI: – Block World MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management   workshop: ISF19loccity: Canberra[workshop : ISF19]          (loc)         [city : Canberra]Example: The IS Foundations Workshop 2019 is located in CanberraConceptual Framework  Described Formally 1  A formal ontology and example domainMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management 22Conceptual Framework  Described Formally 2  General Taxonomy(eg. the Standard Upper Ontology, ebXML, …) :T  >  event  >  act T  >  physical-object >  animate-object  >  person( (subt) abbreviated to ‘>’, T = top) General Relationships:(agnt)agent (attr)attribute (inst)instrument          (obj)object (part)part (loc)location(eg.  [cat] <- (agnt) <- [sat] -> (loc) -> [mat] )MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management 22

generic concept, there is an author (or
)
an individual, the author, FredConceptual Framework  Described Formally 3  Workshop Concepts:T  >  physical-object >  paperWorkshop Definitions: act  >  write  [write]   ->  (agnt)  ->  [animate]    ->  (obj)     ->  [paper]Then we can start using the ontology …
 <-  (agnt)  <-  [write]  ->  (obj)  ->  [paper:#27][workshop : ISF19]          (loc)         [city : Canberra]Example from the ‘Workshop’ domainWorkshop Taxonomy:’Fred wrote paper number 27”paper number 27 wrote Fred’A machine can detect this invalid statement…and much more MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management 22Concepts & OntologyThe 3 worlds idea can be seen as an ‘ontological’ theory That is, it posits 3 concepts about the sorts of things that exist: material entities, forces and structures thinking (a process) abstract entities (concepts and relationships)The  Big  IdeasWhy  Study  These?Because they specifically underlie the key organisational technologies  and, more generally, underlie our capacity to understand our world!MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management The Structure of the Information World    (data, information, knowledge)religionsThe lawvocabulariesinstitutionsculturesdesignsdatadiscussionsreportsWorld 2:Cognition World 1:Physical Objects and Events debatesblogstheories & modelspoliciesproceduresrulessocial conventionsontologiesproposalsEverything we say (and think?) isframed in terms of OntologyMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management World 2:Cognition World 1:Physical Objects and Events Another  Word about Concepts … ‘levels of conceptualisation’Substantive ConceptsConcept FrameworkMore abstract Frameworks MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management2. Conceptual SpecificationRecap  Week 1Team MeetingTechnology Module Topic 2:Concepts & their Specification (for assignment 1)Picturing a System  (thinking about assignment 2)Data Specification (thinking about assignment 2)   MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Starts to capture the people in the domain – their interests and natures.Peter Checkland (2000)Domain Overview:   A Rich PictureMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management  Domain Overview:   A Rich PictureStarts to capture the Big ideas in the domainMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management  Domain Overview:   A Rich PictureMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management  Domain Overview:   A Rich PictureMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Group ExerciseLast week we started to look at the case study for this semester’s assignment.Now, using your knowledge of the language of the domain,start to sketch a rich picture.MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management2. Conceptual SpecificationRecap  Week 1Team MeetingTechnology Module Topic 2:Concepts & their Specification (for assignment 1)Picturing a System  (thinking about assignment 2)Data Specification (thinking about assignment 2)    MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Data Statements:The temperature of this room is 22 degrees cData & its ModellingDataThe ObjectThe Attribute of the Object the data refers to D = VAO(data = value of an attribute of an object) MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management 32https:// www.youtube.com / watch?v =jV-7Hy-PF2Q&frags=pl%2Cwn Data & AbstractionMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Data Base TechnologyStores data ! eg. the temperature of this room recorded every 10 minseg. all the relevant data relating to you is in the student databaseHow do we tell a machine what the data is about?(eg. how does it know 22 is the temperature of this room etc) We analyse the domain and develop a model of the SORT of data we want.Then build systems to capture the actual data and process it…  ‘meta-data”data’MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management 34Data model (meta-data):Diagram of data entities and their relationships Not the data itselfEntity-relationship (ER) diagrams:Data models use basic graphical symbols to show the organization of and relationships between data-entitiesProvides a global reference to an organization’s data structures.Useful for designing a database structure, semantic web, etc.Data & its ModellingMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management 35OwnermedicationPet       Vet       PracticeVisitExercise: Write an English sentence equivalent to the E-R diagram below.(A ‘Vet’ is a Veterinary doctor who looks after animalsA ‘Practice’ is a place where a doctor works)http://www.sqa.org.uk/e-learning/SQLIntro01CD/page_07.htmThis is a data model – a kind of Conceptual Framework MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Entity (a concept, a set, a class):   An Entity is a concept identifying a set of Objects about which we want to record data.eg. Employee.   EmployeeMeta-Data – Basic IdeasAttribute:An Attribute identifies a property all instances of an entity have. eg.Employee:employee numberemployee nameemployee addressemployee salaryMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management 3Meta-data  &  Data Employee Id # Name Address Salary …   u123456 Schmit ???? 800,000    u752034 Sui ???? 55,000    u953745 Craig ???? 60    Employeemeta-datadatabaseattributesEntityinstance (data about an object)data valueA Database Table MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management 3Look at your student cards.Design meta-data for a ‘student’ entity in the student systemPopulate a database with data from your team’s students’ cards Data – Group ExerciseMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Data Model ExampleEmployeeEmploysDepartmentAn event (world 1) establishes a relationship between objectseg. Schmit was employed by the Management Department on January 1 2017The ’employs’ event generated an instance of the ‘Employs’ Entity.A Database Schema (tables & relationships) MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Draw a data model relatingstudent and courseTeam Data Model ExerciseMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Data Model with Data  Student Id # Name Photo Expiry date Bar Code   u123456 Fred ???? 31/12/20    u752034 Sui ???? 1/1/21    u953745 Sisira ????     Student Course Id # Semester Lecturer   MGMT7020 1/19 ….   MGMT7086 2/19 …   INFS2016 1/20 …   Course OfferingEnrols Student d # Course Id # Semester Grade   u123456 MGMT7020 1/19    u123456 INFS2016 1/19    u953745 INFS2016 1/19    u123456 MGMT7086 1/19    DataDataDataMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Larger Data Modelhttps://magento.stackexchange.com/questions/73433/magento-database-diagramMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Role of Data in SystemsTransaction Processing data retrieval, Instance creation  Management / Executive Information Systems (MIS/EIS)data aggregated over time and locationsDecision Support Systems (DSS)historical data used for prediction, current data for state Business Intelligence Systems (BI)Data AnalyticsBig Datasquare kilometre array …MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management 55Obtain a “narrative” (e.g. from observation, a business analysis, an interview, etc.)Identify the entities needed Look for objects (often nouns) in the narrativeDetect the relationships between the entitiesDraw an entity model, showing the entities and relationships between themDetermine the attributes for each entityTest with dataData Model DevelopmentMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management 55The Structure of World 3   (data, information, knowledge/theory)religionsMETA DATAvocabulariesinstitutionsculturesdesignsdatadiscussionsreportsdebatesblogstheories & modelspoliciesproceduresrulessocial conventionsontologieshypothesesproposalsThe lawInstance dataParticular ThingMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management2. Conceptual SpecificationRecap  Week 1Team MeetingTechnology Module Topic 2:Concepts & their Specification (for assignment 1)Picturing a System  (thinking about assignment 2)Data Specification (thinking about assignment 2)     MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Technical IT Architecture(hardware & bits)ProcessingUnitsinput &  Information Systems Architectural Layers storageConceptual ArchitectureoutputPhysical & organisational surroundingsThe worlddatadevicesContent(instance data)meta-dataSystems ArchitectureRich Pictureworld 3world 1MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management Assignment 1:  First Team MeetingTeam Meeting  Work with your team on assignment 2- Rich Picture- Data – Technical ArchitectureMGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management What to do next …Start writing assignment 2 … it will be a very iterative process!- Rich Picture- Data Modelling- Technical ArchitectureAssignment 1- start mapping the main concepts in the ontology of your topic.MGMT 7020   Technology and Project Management concept-2relationconcept-1

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